So, you are looking for a manufacturing facility that will enable you to extract thousands of acres of hemp or other plant material? What easier way than with ethanol extraction systems? You get some food-grade ethanol, mix it up, wait a while, drain and then remove the ethanol and shazam! You can do tons of hemp every day. Right?
Ethanol Extraction System
Well, yes – but that’s only part of the story. There is still a long list of important things to consider when scaling up your ethanol extraction systems to a larger scale. The following list contains only some of the items that need to be addressed in your planning:
- You will need lots of ethanol and a way to store that ethanol and then a way to get the ethanol out of the extract. This necessarily involves heating the ethanol up beyond its boiling and flash points.
- You will need to store that ethanol in compliance with NFPA requirements for storage. You will also require permits, planning, engineers, and compliance people.
- Ethanol is flammable as a liquid and a gas.
- You will need to consider the high power consumption associated with cooling large amounts of ethanol to very low temperatures.
- You will need to consider the large footprint and space requirements to accommodate a facility.
- According to Hybrid Technologies, a two-ton-per-day facility will require about 30,000 ft sq with buildout costs ranging from $350-500/sf for C1D1 and hazard class designation.
- You will need to comply with OSHA and your local and state fire marshals and building inspectors.
- Your business plan should have included the high cost of food grade ethanol with excise tax included. Manufacturers are responsible for paying this tax even if they source ethanol that has a special, easily removed denaturant.
- Facilities and infrastructure should be designed in compliance with NFPA special case for flammable liquids and gasses processing.
- You should consider that ethanol is non-selective and does a great job at extracting any and all pesticides from plant materials.
- Also keep in mind that ethanol extracts a great deal of chlorophyll and xanthophyll from the biomass. You’ll want to refine the dark-green extract to give it a more pleasing flavor and appearance.
- You should consider the quality of the extract and the time required to achieve your desired quality.
- You should consider the impact of low recovery as a function of throughput.
- You should consider that your facilities are going to require specialized sprinkler systems utilizing foam.
- Your plan should accommodate corrosion and API 653 inspections.
It’s also important to remember that flammable liquid leakages, like ethanol, are catastrophic. Fires and explosions from flammable chemical leaks have the potential to seriously injure those people near the occurrence, as well as destroy the tank, the building it is in or near, and any other object nearby. The risk factor only increases as you move to large-scale production.
As you can see, there are a lot of hidden costs to large-scale ethanol extraction systems that many producers don’t consider. Fundamentally, you need to ask yourself if you are ready to build the equivalent of an ethanol refinery. If you are, then ethanol is for you!
If you want to skip most all of this pain, you might consider deploying high-throughput supercritical CO2 extraction systems. Compared to ethanol, CO2 systems:
- Are relatively low in cost, including buildout cost
- Have a small footprint – 1,000-2,000 ft sq for 2 tons per day
- Consume only a tiny amount of power – 500-700 amps
- Do not require special infrastructure
- Deliver superior quality oils with fewer pesticides
- Are over 99% efficient
- Are generally less expensive per gram produced compared to ethanol
- Can be scaled in a very small space to process thousands of acres of hemp
Contact extraktLAB to Learn More About Supercritical CO2 Extraction
Whether you’re interested in scaling up your ethanol production, looking to refine your ethanol extracts, or want to know more about the benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction, extraktLAB is here to help. Our extraction experts can help you formulate a plan to minimize your operating expenses and maximize profit, no matter the desired scale of your extraction lab – even up to one ton per day!
Call us at 651-600-0036 or complete the contact form below for more information.
Frequently Asked Questions
Does hemp biomass need to cure before extraction?
No, the material does not need to cure. Our methods complete the final drying step in a vacuum oven to bring the water content down from 10% to the 1% – 1.5% range for efficient CO2 extraction.
Can the drying process be accelerated using higher temps/lower humidity?
There are several drying methods used by growers to accelerate drying, but this is outside our scope of solutions. We recommend researching the agricultural methods to find what works best for you.
What are the typical conditions to dry hemp for extraction?
Harvest drying methods are outside the scope of our solutions; however, you want to dry the biomass to roughly 10% water content for quality storage to prevent mold or mildew.
When producing CBD from hemp, which part of the plant is typically used?
Typically flowers and leaves – no stems or stalks. Some producers will sort out the flowers and process them separately, but most processing includes the leaves and flowers.
Can ethanol become contaminated during ethanol extraction?
Yes, ethanol can become contaminated during ethanol extraction. It is important that you address the contamination with testing and reuse protocols. guidance for solvent reviews have been published by the FDA in 2010. Please refer to the many articles in this blog for more information on cross-contamination with extraction.
What is the electrical cost of ethanol extraction vs. CO2 extraction?
Processing a ton of hemp per day into extracts can be an energy-intensive process depending on how the hemp is extracted. The following table compares the energy expense for ethanol extraction versus the energy expense for CO2 extraction:
|Energy cost for Ethanol Extraction for 1 ton per day at 1 gallon ethanol per 1 lb of hemp|
|18711||litres to cool from 25 to -20|
|16840||litres to heat and evaporate after ethanol loss|
|454||kwhr to Cool from 25 to -20|
|481||kwhr to heat to boiling point|
|3105||kwhr to evaporate|
|4040||kwhr total @ 100% Efficiency|
|$ 0.09||per kwhr|
|$ 506.36||per day|
|Energy cost for CO2 Extraction at 1 ton per day including winterization|
|636||litres to cool from 25 to -20|
|636||litres to heat and evaporate after ethanol loss|
|15||kwhr to Cool from 25 to -20|
|18||kwhr to heat to boiling point|
|117||kwhr to evaporate|
|151||kwhr total @ 100% Efficiency|
|$ 0.09||per kwhr|
|$ 18.92||per day for winterization|
|43.20||Kwhr per day for CO2 extractors|
|$ 3.88||Per day for CO2 extractors|
Would you recommend ethanol extracted oils for Vape products?
Due to the risk of chemical contaminants that are found in 25 to 30% of ethanol extracted oils, we recommend that CO2 oils be used for Vapor Products.
Is it possible to make a solventless extract with CO2?
It is absolutely possible to make a solventless extract with CO2. Solventless extracts are typically made with subcritical CO2 extraction methods.
Does ethanol extraction have a greater throughput than CO2 extraction?
Hemp processing equipment can be scaled for 1 to 5 tons of extracted hemp per day. It’s generally not a fair comparison to compare the throughput on an instrument from two different companies. What is fair is to specify the throughput At the tonnage process per day and then look at the operating cost for that process. You can also look at the equipment and Facilities cost to accommodate that level of Production. after you have all of your costs accounted for including the hidden costs, then you can calculate the net present value for each investment.
What are the most common denaturants in ethanol?
Denatured ethanol is a mixture of denaturants and pure ethanol. Chemical companies add the denaturant to Pure ethanol so that they will not be consumed as a food.
Denatured recipes are published by the ttb that is administered by the National Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms. There are many different recipes. one of the most common denaturants used in ethanol extraction is heptane. However there are other substances that may be used including acetone, isopropyl alcohol, methanol and other longer chain alcohols.
Is very limited data on the safety of heptane over the long term exposure. In fact the limit that the FDA has placed on the amount of heptane in a tincture for example was established in the 1990s on the basis of a single study published in 1981. That study the effect of heptane on Sprague dawley rats. That is why there are many disclaimers and the general guidance from the FDA is to limit the amount of solvent in any drug that is consumed.
Doesn’t ethanol extraction equipment remove all the ethanol from the biomass after extraction?
No. Approximately 5 to 10% of the ethanol is left in the biomass and is counted as a solvent loss. These solvent losses add up to operating costs. This is especially true if organic ethanol is used or food grade ethanol is utilized as the extraction solvent.
If you had an ethanol extraction facility, would you ever use CO2 just for stripping terpenes?
Ethanol extraction typically destroys the terpenes when the ethanol is removed from the extract or is distilled from the winterized oil. Many ethanol extractors are seeking a way to preserve the terpene profile of the plant in the output oil. To this end people have tried techniques such as Steam distillation, CO2 stripping, and vacuum distillation.
Certainly, CO2 can be used to strip terpenes from Hemp biomass Prior to ethanol extraction. However, vacuum distillation is by far the most gentle and effective way to harvest the terpene profile prior to ethanol extraction.
How do I model and compare the financial return of ethanol extraction vs CO2 extraction?
There are many inputs that need to be defined when creating a financial model comparing two different extraction methods. The first decision to be made is to decide what the financial metric will be used to make a decision on the superiority of one method over the other.
In this case, we recommend the use of the Net Present Value as the way to model the return of each extraction technique because it accounts for the cash flow associated with the operation. Many ethanol extraction companies try to make the argument that ethanol extraction is lower cost because the equipment cost is less. However, the equipment cost will have very little impact on the overall profitability of the operation at the same throughput.
The best way to compare the two techniques is to fix the throughput so that an apples-to-apples comparison can be made. Comparisons such are payback time and return on investment can mislead someone into making a bad investment decision.
So if we fix the throughput at one ton per day the cost of the hemp is equal between the techniques and operating cost variance is the only contributing factor.
Here are the twelve key questions that need to be defined in order to do a comparison:
- What is the direct labor to process?
- What is the energy to process?
- What are the solvent losses?
- What are the direct material startup costs including solvent startup costs?
- What are the cannabinoid recovery rates?
- How much solvent do I use, reuse, and when do I need to replace the solvent with fresh solvent? and at what interval?
- What is the insurance cost for each option?
- What is the cost of hazardous waste disposal?
- What is the cost of solvent removal?
- What is the cost of reuse of the solvent?
- What is the cost of HAP emissions?
- What is the depreciation for each option including building costs for H2 vs F2 occupancy?
Once these questions are answered you will be able to build a pro forma income statement.
- Standard labor
- Standard materials
You can then hold SG&A and R&D constant for both techniques and account for the difference in depreciation to get to a net margin number.
A cash flow statement can then be generated from net margin. One thing to note is that depreciation must be added back to net margin as it is a non-cash expense on the income statement.
Cash flows are then added up for 5 consecutive periods (years) including the initial outlay of cash for startup working capital. Those cash flows are then discounted at a discount rate (Weighted average cost of capital estimate at 13-17%).
If you do this analysis, you will find that CO2 extraction will absolutely crush ethanol extraction in terms of net present value.
Does it cost less to process hemp with Co2 compared with Ethanol?
In fact the operating cost for CO2 extraction is dramatically less than the operating costs associated with ethanol.
Extraction with Ethanol is a process that is typically run at low temperatures. First the ethanol is cooled to below -20oC before it is introduced to the hemp. Cooling the ethanol reduces the amount of extracted chlorophyll and waxes. If you account for the energy required to chill the ethanol down to those low temperatures and then also evaporate after use, the energy bill for extracting ethanol is approximately 3-6x the cost of extracting with CO2. However, the energy cost is really not the key driver in the overall operating costs.
Ethanol extraction requires a significant amount of ethanol to be used per pound of hemp. In fact, about 1 to 1.5 gallons of ethanol must be used per pound of dry hemp in order to extract. Hemp is a very absorbent biomass material and the ethanol must fully saturate the hemp plant before any extraction can take place. For this reason a large volume of ethanol is needed to extract cbd from hemp.
The key cost driver or ethanol extraction is recovery of that solvent from the biomass. Even though many ethanol extraction equipment companies provide centrifuges and or presses to eliminate the amount of ethanol left over in the biomass, The best equipment will provide only a 90 to 95% recovery of the ethanol. This 5 to 10% loss in ethanol is a huge cost driver for extracting ethanol.
For example, suppose you wanted to process 1000 lb of hemp. You would need 1000 gallons of ethanol to start out at a cost of $16-33 per gallon for food grade ethanol for a total cost of $16,000 to $33,000. If you recovered 90% of the ethanol the ethanol loss would be $1,600 – $3,300 per 1000 lbs. Furthermore if you process 1000 pounds per day, this would be your daily loss.
In contrast, you will lose the equivalent of about $70 per day for CO2 extractions for the exact same process.
Besides energy and solvent usage, there are many other hidden costs related to extraction with ethanol including solvent reuse costs, insurance cost, increased facilities cost, and testing costs.
Is CO2 cheaper than ethanol?
A pound of food grade ethanol when purchased in bulk is $4.71/lb at current price.
A pound of food grade CO2 when purchased in bulk is about $0.04/lb at current price.
What’s the purity of the CO2 used in CO2 extraction?
There are many grades of CO2 including industrial and food grade and medical grade. We typically use food grade but medical grade is also highly desirable. the specifications for each of these grades are published by the Compressed Gas Association or by your gas supplier.